Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis . Москва: Наука. The Hsiung-nu in China (); Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth (); Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe (). This chapter discusses Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis. Generally speaking, ethnogenesis proceeded in the following manner. At certain historical moments. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth has 98 ratings and 9 reviews.
|Published (Last):||9 October 2006|
|PDF File Size:||7.7 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||19.51 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Even though this seems a declaration, the reader for whom this book has been written now knows that the author is not trying simply to present a formulation but to show the whole way it was achieved and the grounds that convince him that the conception proposed meets all the demands made of scientific hypotheses at today’s level of science. Non-specialists’ familiarity with the subject as a consequence of reading fiction, and the availability of living tradition, are very conducive to this.
Let me now draw a first conclusion, which will be the starting point for the further exposition. Later, however, I plucked up courage. According to the theory of historical materialism, the spontaneous development of the productive forces causes changes in the relations of biiosphere which generates a dialectical process of class formation that are transformed by processes of class abolition.
But that pattern has also governed other peoples. But there is another point of view, in accordance with which. But when we extract direct information from sources, and take thf two facts but 2we then get several causal chains that not only correlate with one another but also with the model we propose.
Between North and South a stubborn war that no one needed was being waged, the only which the cosmic stranger would have seen leaving out the origin of the situation in accordance with the conditions of the exerciseonce more convinced of the wrongness of his predictions and the capriciousness ethnogenesks the course of the history of various peoples. China Chinese Christian civilization conception conquered consequently created culture death descendants disappeared dynamic dynasty East elements emperor energy entity environment epoch ethnic history ethnic system ethnogenesis ethnography ethnos Europe European example existence fact feudal forces formation French biospherd Germans Greeks Hellenic historians homeostasis impulse of drive Indians individual inertia Iran Khazars killed land Langobards linked living matter means Mongols Monophysites Moscow Muslim natural Nauka neighbours nogenesis observed organism Persians person phase of ethnogenesis phenomena phenomenon population principle problem process of ethnogenesis region relict resistance role Roman Empire Rome Russian social sometimes Spaniards species steppe stereotype of behaviour sub-drive subethnoi superethnos Syria Tatars terrain tion tradition tribes Turks Uighurs unity variants victory whole X-factor.
Up to the thhe of the nineteenth century geography and ethnography developed together, but ethnography later split into socio-historical and geographical trends. In these currents of theological thought, it should be noted, there was concealed a kernel of future ethnoi, but from outer space these fine nuances are indistinguishable by the most sensitive instruments. And how many other powerful forces of nature that surround us and govern our fate lie outside our understanding.
From high up it is clear that such unlike ethnoi as Spaniards and Swedes, Scots and Neapolitans, English and Czechs, constitute an entity, are aware of it, and even call themselves the ‘Christian world’, excluding from that definition the Greeks, Bulgarians, Russians, and Irish.
Gumilyov described the current state of Europe as deep ethnogeneeis, or “introduction to obscuration”, to use his own words. Who were these Khazars? And in those centuries the inhabitants of Turfan, Karashahr, anc Kucha began to call themselves Uighurs. Return to Book Page. So ethnography arose, the science of the differences between peoples. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere. Or rather each human being is simultaneously a member of a society and a representative of an ethnic national group, but these two concepts are incommensurable and lie on different planes, like length and weight, for example, or a degree of heat and an electrical charge.
The Chinese built themselves a colony Gaochang, in the Turfan oasis, which lasted until the ninth century A. After serving the time, he joined the Red Army and took part in the Battle of Berlin of When it becomes a matter of synthesis, the approach to a problem is correspondingly altered.
Even the outline of the Tje Sea was different. It has to biossphere admitted that the prediction was mistaken. The caste system was abolished, which distinguished the Sikhs the name of devotees of the new faith from Hindus. To call a country inhabited by Indo-Europeans who have learned to understand Turkish speech ‘Turkestan’ is stupid.
Lev Gumilev. “Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere”. Chapter 1
And the astronauts draw the logical conclusion that before them is a stable society with a rich, developing culture, that the boundaries of the Han Empire will be extended to the north and west so as to enlighten the savage Hunni and Tibetans by an advanced civilization, and that the drawbacks of the bureaucratic system will be eliminated by the spread of education, because that is profitable for the state and consequently should lead to universal good. In the descriptions of the capture of the city of Urahai Mongolian or Heshuicheng Chinese there is no such information.
Although the official Soviet authorities rejected his ideas and banned most of his monographs from publication, Gumilyov came to attract much publicity, especially in the Perestroika years of I can now say quite definitely that the method of my astronauts was faulty, although it coincided with the school of aggressive dilettantism very common on Earth.
For the Turks and the Romans it was a she-wolf wet-nurse; for the Uighurs a wolf that fertilized a queen; for the Tibetans an ape and a female rakshas forest demon.
Feeling or sensation consequently underlies the ethnic diagnostic. With the Hunni it was necessary, in order to be considered one, to be a member of a clan, but a clan could only be joined through marriage or by the command of a shanyui, by which a person became a member of a clan.
It is also not necessary to reduce the whole diversity of my theme to some one thing. But is it worth our while to talk about this theme? The principle of like-mindedness was also proclaimed by the Caliphs, the successors of Muhammed, but it did not withstand the rivalry of living reality – ethnoi again arose within the unity of Islam.
Lev Gumilyov – Wikipedia
Unlike most mammals Homo sapiens cannot be called either a gregarious or an individual animal. Karl Jaspers proposed his own solution.
Central Asia was inhabited by Sogdians in the seventh century A. This point is so clear that there is no need of labouring it.
Celtic Bretons and Iberian Gascons live in France. And that seems even to be doubtful. Petersburg — 15 JuneSt.
But the past exists; and everything that exists is past, since anything completed then and there becomes the past.